Phototherapy and exchange transfusion can be used to prevent kernicterus due to hyperbilirubinemia in HDN. Neither therapy was needed in this case. At which level of total serum birubin is exchange transfusion typically considered?

When to perform exchange transfusion in an infant suffering from HDN is a medical decision that involves a complex mix of factors, including gestational age when delivered, total serum birubin levels, effectiveness of intensive phototherapy, degree of anemia, and other complicating factors.

In general, kernicterus becomes a threat in a term infant when the total serum bilirubin nears 340 µmol/L.